Contact: David Parham 940-322-4343

Website: Internet Bible Studies

I Samuel Menu

















Ball23A0.gif (3556 bytes)


I Samuel Chapter 1

Memory verses for this week:  Deu 4:31  (For the LORD thy God is a merciful God;) he will not forsake thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget the covenant of thy fathers which he sware unto them..


Introduction:  We begin a new study this week on the book of I Samuel.   The story begins with the introduction of Elkanah, a man from the tribe of Ephraim who lived in the city of Ramah.

I.  The Mother Of Samuel

1 Sam 1:1  Now there was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:

1 Sam 1:2  And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.

Hannah’s husband was Elkanah, a man who lived in Ramah in the land of Zuph.   He was from the tribe of Ephraim.   He had two wives, Hannah, and Peninnah.  The first man guilty of polygamy recorded in the bible was Lamech.

Gen 4:19  And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

Abraham also had two wives, and this caused him much trouble in his family.

Gen 16:1  Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.

Gen 16:2  And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.

Gen 16:3  And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife.

Gen 16:4  And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.

Gen 16:5  And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.

Gen 16:6  But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face. 

1 Sam 1:3  And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there.

Elkanah seemed to prefer Hannah over Peninnah, and this made for a bad situation in the family.  This provoked jealousy between the wives more than normal.   Hannah was jealous of Peninnah because she had children, and Peninnah was jealous of Hannah because their husband showed partiality to Hannah.   Elkanah was a godly man and made a yearly pilgrimage to the tabernacle in Shiloh to worship the Lord.

1 Sam 1:4  And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions:

1 Sam 1:5  But unto Hannah he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.

At this time, the two sons of Eli were serving at the tabernacle.   Both of these men were wicked in the sight of God.   It says in verse 4 that Elkanah gave gifts for the tabernacle to Peninnah and her children.   He gave a special gift to Hannah because it says he loved her.   God had shut up the womb of Hannah, and there was a special reason for this. 

1 Sam 1:6  And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.

1 Sam 1:7  And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.

1 Sam 1:8  Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? am not I better to thee than ten sons?

1 Sam 1:9  So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD. 

Peninnah used the fact of Hannah having no children to make Hannah jealous.  This became a heavy burden on her and she wept before the lord.   Because of Hannah’s sorrow, this brought grief to Elkanah.    He asks Hannah if he was not better to her than 10 sons.   Eli was the judge in Israel at this time and he sat by the post of the temple.

II.  The Vow of Hannah

1 Sam 1:10  And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.

1 Sam 1:11  And she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head.

Hannah went to the right one with her problem.   She was in bitterness of soul.  When a person is in bitterness of soul, they normally do one of two things.   They either turn away from God or turn to him in prayer.   Hannah chose the wise choice and turned to God in prayer.   Hannah made a promise to the Lord that she would give the child to the Lord all the days of his life.   She also included the vow of a Nazarite… “No razor shall come upon his head.”   Every mother should have a desire that her children be given unto the Lord all the days of their life.   What greater blessing could a mother have than to have her children serve the Lord?

1 Sam 1:12  And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli marked her mouth.

1 Sam 1:13  Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken.

1 Sam 1:14  And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee.

1 Sam 1:15  And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD. 

While Hannah was praying, Eli saw her mouth was moving but no words came out.   He thought that she was drunk.   Eli asked her how long would she be drunken?  She assured Eli that she was not drunk, but that she had been pouring her heart out to the Lord.   This should be an encouragement to us to always turn our hearts over to the Lord when we need help.   God is always there to help us when we come with a humble and contrite spirit.

James 5:16  Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much.

1 Sam 1:16  Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.

1 Sam 1:17  Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him.

1 Sam 1:18  And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad.


Hannah implored Eli to not think of her as one of the worthless daughters of Belial.   She had spoken to the Lord of the burden on her heart.  Apparently, from the tone of her voice, Eli knew she was telling the truth.


1 Sam 1:19  And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her.

Eli turned from chiding Hannah and told her to go in peace… that the God of Israel would grant her petition.  Eli was not a good father in that he didn’t correct his evil sons, but he did know where the miracles of the Lord came from.  After Eli told her to go in peace, she most have left with confidence knowing that God had heard her petition.   She left without the sad countenance.


III.  Birth of Samuel

1 Sam 1:20  Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD.

1 Sam 1:21  And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.

1 Sam 1:22  But Hannah went not up; for she said unto her husband, I will not go up until the child be weaned, and then I will bring him, that he may appear before the LORD, and there abide for ever.

1 Sam 1:23  And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only the LORD establish his word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.

The Lord answered her prayer and she conceived.  After much prayer and pouring her heart out to the Lord, God gave her a son.  Hannah named her son Samuel.   The name Samuel means “asked of God.”  The time came for Elkanah and his family to come up the house of the Lord.   Apparently, this was a year after she had made her vow.    It says in verse 22 that she was not up to coming to the yearly sacrifice, and she told Elkanah that she would not go up until Samuel was weaned.    We are not told when Hannah told Elkanah of her vow concerning Samuel.


IV.  Hannah Brings Samuel to Eli

1 Sam 1:24  And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the house of the LORD in Shiloh: and the child was young.

1 Sam 1:25  And they slew a bullock, and brought the child to Eli.

1 Sam 1:26  And she said, Oh my lord, as thy soul liveth, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD.

1 Sam 1:27  For this child I prayed; and the LORD hath given me my petition which I asked of him:

1 Sam 1:28  Therefore also I have lent him to the LORD; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the LORD. And he worshipped the LORD there. 

After Samuel was weaned, Hannah kept her promise and brought Samuel to Eli.   He was very young, and she was giving the boy to the Lord for his whole life.  As long as Samuel lived, Hannah lent the boy to the Lord.   God would use Samuel in a great, great way.

Internet Bible Studies are prepared and distributed free of charge.  The lessons may not be sold without consent.   If you have questions or wish to discuss the lessons, or possibly need help in finding Jesus Christ as your Personal Lord and Savior, contact David Parham at 940-322-4343.


Prov 4:18  But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day.


e-mail at:



Practice Random Acts of Kindness.  Each act spreads, and many will be blessed.