I Samuel Chapter
Memory verses for this week:
John 14:27 Peace I leave
with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I
unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
Introduction: We continue
our study on Samuel this week. In last weekís lesson, we studied
about the proclamation that Samuel made to Israel as he reminded
them of how God had granted them a king at their request, but
reminds them again that they should have just trusted God to be
Conditions in Israel
13:1 Saul reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over
13:2 Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel; whereof two
thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a
thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of
the people he sent every man to his tent.
opens explaining that Saul had reigned two years over Israel when he
first established an army of 3,000 men. There was also an army of
1,000 men who were under the command of his son Jonathan in Gibeah.
This was in the tribe of Benjamin. The Philistines still remained a
threatening force to Israel, and because of this, there were
garrisons established in many of the towns. In verse 3, it mentions
that Geba was one of those cities in which the Philistines had
13:3 And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in
Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet
throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear.
13:4 And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of
the Philistines, and that Israel also was had in abomination with
the Philistines. And the people were called together after Saul to
his army into Geba and smote the garrison of the Philistines. Geba
was a Levite city from the tribe of Benjamin which was a distance
from Jerusalem. When Jonathan smote the garrison at Geba, this
aroused the Philistines against Israel. Saul blew a trumpet to
summon the Israelites to come out and meet the Philistines in
battle. When Saul wins this battle, the news of the victory spreads
all through Israel. He then sends out a call for the armies to
gather at Gilgal.
13:5 And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with
Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and
people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude: and they
came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Bethaven.
Philistines gather together to fight Israel with 30,000 chariots and
6,000 horsemen. It says the number of foot soldiers was virtually
innumerable calling them as the sand which is on the sea shore in
multitude. They moved into Israel and spread themselves along the
way to Bethaven in the mountains of Benjamin. They went further to
east unto Michmash where there was a pass leading down into the
13:6 When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, (for the
people were distressed,) then the people did hide themselves in
caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in high places, and in
13:7 And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and
Gilead. As for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal, and all the people
followed him trembling.
Most of the
Israelites were scared and distressed. Instead of coming out in
battle against the Philistines, many hid out in caves, thickets,
rock, and mountains. Some even hid in high places and in pits. Some
of those even more fearful fled the land to another country
intending to reside there until the danger be passed. Many crossed
the Jordan into the tribe of Gad and stayed in the land of Gilead.
Saul stayed in Gilgal with his trembling army, expecting Samuel to
come and make a sacrifice before the battle. The people were
unwilling to answer the trumpet call and to fight for their country.
They did not have confidence that they could drive out the enemy.
Many times in our lives, when the odds look insurmountable, we just
need to trust God to win the battle for us. God is always there with
Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with
such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee,
nor forsake thee.
So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not
fear what man shall do unto me.
of Israel demonstrated a great lack of faith and confidence in their
king, but even more so in God. We have a promise when we look to God
that he will help us in all things.
I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.
Intrudes Into the Priestís Office
13:8 And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that
Samuel had appointed: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people
were scattered from him.
13:9 And Saul said, Bring hither a burnt offering to me, and peace
offerings. And he offered the burnt offering.
13:10 And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of
offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came; and Saul went out
to meet him, that he might salute him.
promised to come within seven days, but on the seventh day, when he
did not come, Saul showed his impatience. His army was beginning to
disband, and he felt he must take things into his own hands. Once
before Samuel had asked Saul to go to Gilgal and wait, but Saul
refused. This time he refuses to wait the full seven days. Patience
is one of the hardest attributes to acquire, and if we donít master
it, God will begin to train us to gain it. And how do we gain
patience? By tribulation the Word of God says.
By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we
stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also: knowing that
tribulation worketh patience;
And patience, experience; and experience, hope:
And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad
in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.
Saul did not
wait on Samuel, but calls for the animals to sacrifice without the
priest. This was not allowed back in this day. Only the priests
could administer the sacrifices. After Saul had offered the burnt
offering, Samuel arrived and Saul went out to meet him.
Divine Rejection of Saul
1 Sam 13:11 And Samuel said, What
hast thou done? And Saul said, Because I saw that the people were
scattered from me, and that thou camest not within the days
appointed, and that the Philistines gathered themselves together at
13:12 Therefore said I, The Philistines will come down now upon me
to Gilgal, and I have not made supplication unto the LORD: I forced
myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering.
saw what Saul had done, he rebuked him severely. Saul explains in
verse 11 and 12 why he had hurried and done the sacrifice. The
people were scattering away from him and the Philistines were
gathering at Michmash and threatening him. He was about to be force
into battle with the Philistines without having made sacrifice and
calling on the Lord. He felt he was forced to do it. Sometimes when
the trials of this life beat us down, we can get to feeling this
same way. The car breaks down or the water heater breaks, and we
just canít stand the pressure anymore and respond with a giant bill
to pay for. Is getting a new car or a new hot water heater a sin?
No, not if God wants us to have one. But we need to go slow and be
sure that we are doing things Godís way and not responding to the
crisis of this life. God wants us to pray, and then sometimes we
need to wait. Saul should have waited on Samuel.
Wait on the LORD: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine
heart: wait, I say, on the LORD.
Wait on the LORD, and keep his way, and he shall exalt thee to
inherit the land: when the wicked are cut off, thou shalt see it.
20:22 Say not thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on the LORD,
and he shall save thee.
wish I had learned to wait on the Lord more in my earlier years. I
donít suppose we ever arrive to the perfection we need, but if we
seek the Lordís face, we will certainly have much more patience and
learn that waiting on God is always the best policy. Saul did not
pray about doing the sacrifices. If he had, I believe God would have
clearly indicated to him that he should wait on Samuel.
Matthew Henry said that Saulís bigger error was failing to repent of
Saul determined to engage the
Philistines without Samuelís directions, though he had promised to
show him what he should do. So self-sufficient Saul was that he
thought it not worth while to stay for a prophet of the Lord, either
to pray for him or to advise him. This was Saulís offence, and that
which aggravated it was, (1.) That for aught that appears, he did
not send any messenger to Samuel, to know his mind, to represent the
case to him, and to receive fresh directions from him, though he had
enough about him that were swift enough of foot at this time. (2.)
That when Samuel came he rather seemed to boast of what he had done
than to repent of it; for he went forth to salute him, as his
brother-sacrificer, and seemed pleased with the opportunity he had
of letting Samuel know that he needed him not, but could do well
enough without him. He went out to bless him, so the word is, as if
he now thought himself a complete priest, empowered to bless as well
as sacrifice, whereas he should have gone out to be blessed by him.
(3.) That he charged Samuel with breach of promise: Thou camest not
within the days appointed (v. 11), and therefore if any thing was
amiss Samuel must bear the blame, who was Godís minister; whereas he
did come according to his word, before the seven days had expired.
Thus the scoffers of the latter days think the promise of Christís
coming is broken, because he does not come in their time, though it
is certain he will come at the set time. (4.) That when he was
charged with disobedience he justified himself in what he had done,
and gave no sign at all of repentance for it. It is not sinning that
ruins men, but sinning and not repenting, falling and not getting up
13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast
not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded
thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon
Israel for ever.
13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought
him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be
captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the
LORD commanded thee.
Saul that he had committed a foolish act in not keeping the Lordís
commandments. Weíve heard it so many times, but it is still true.
God is much more impressed with obedience than sacrifice. If Saul
had done as commanded, his kingdom would have been established
forever in Israel. Saul was reminded that it was God who sought him
out to be the king. He wanted a man after Godís own heart. But Saul
never ever really accomplished this. The man who claimed this
victory was David.
16:7 But the LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or
on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the
LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward
appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart.
13:22 And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to
be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have
found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which
shall fulfil all my will.
13:23 Of this man's seed hath God according to his promise raised
unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus:
13:15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of
Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people that were present with him,
about six hundred men.
13:16 And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were
present with them, abode in Gibeah of Benjamin: but the Philistines
encamped in Michmash.
conversation with Saul, Samuel left Gilgal and went to Gibeah. There
he numbered the people and found he had 600 men left with him. Saul
and Jonathan come together and move down to Gibeah. The Philistines
were still camped at the pass of Michmash which was about 25 miles
northeast of Gibeah.
13:17 And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in
three companies: one company turned unto the way that leadeth to
Ophrah, unto the land of Shual:
13:18 And another company turned the way to Bethhoron: and another
company turned to the way of the border that looketh to the valley
of Zeboim toward the wilderness.
There were 3
companies of Philistines with one heading to Ophrah, one to Shual,
and one the way of Bethhoron. Apparently they were spreading out to
seek out the Israelites wherever they might find them.
13:19 Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of
Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords
13:20 But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines, to
sharpen every man his share, and his coulter, and his ax, and his
13:21 Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters,
and for the forks, and for the axes, and to sharpen the goads.
during this time that there were no blacksmiths in the tribes of
Israel. When Israel needed to sharpen their work tools and their
plows, they had to bring them to the Philistines. So there was no
one to make them swords or spears to fight.
In the King James Study bible, it
said that the Philistines had a monopoly on the smithís craft until
13:19. At this time the
Philistines enjoyed a monopoly on iron and the smithís craft, a
condition that remained until Davidís day (1 Chr. 22:3). .
13:22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was
neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that
were with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son
was there found.
13:23 And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of
says that there was no sword or spear in the people with Saul and
Jonathan. We can look on this and relate to the sad condition Godís
people can be in when they have no spiritual weapons to fight
against Satan. We need the weapons, and we need to know Godís word.
His word is always a defence against the trials and battles we face.
Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against
the wiles of the devil.
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness
of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able
to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.
Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having
on the breastplate of righteousness;
And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace;
Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.
And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which
is the word of God:
Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and
watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all
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