I Samuel Chapter
Memory verses for this week:
Eccl 12:13 Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear
God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.
Eccl 12:14 For God shall bring
every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be
good, or whether it be evil.
Introduction: We continue
our study on Samuel this week. In last weekís lesson, we studied
about David taking on the giant Goliath with just a sling shot and
some smooth stones. The giant came in his power and the power of his
weapons, but David came in the power of the Lord.
Covenant of Jonathan and David
18:1 And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto
Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and
Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
18:2 And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home
to his father's house.
It made no
sense to me at the end of chapter 17 when King Saul seemed to know
nothing about David, whereas the week before we studied about him
bringing David in to play the harp to comfort him when the evil
spirits came upon him. That was covered in Chapter 16 in verse 14 Ė
23. When the evil spirit came upon Saul, David would play the harp
to soothe Saul. After David ended his talk with King Saul in verse
1, it says that his son Jonathan had knit his soul with the soul of
David. They became to best of friends, and this is one of the
strongest examples of pure brotherly love that we have in the bible.
Those that try to make something evil of this relationship have not
studied the lives of these two men. David was a man after Godís own
heart, and while he made some mistakes in his life, the overwhelming
time he was constantly seeking to do the perfect will of God. In
verse 2, it says that Saul would at this time no longer allow David
to return home to his father Jesse. Perhaps he was concerned about
the young man, or perhaps he wanted to keep an eye on him in case he
might desire to have ambitions to become the king. For whatever
reason, Saul seemed to be suspicious of David from this day forward.
18:3 Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him
as his own soul.
18:4 And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him,
and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to
his bow, and to his girdle.
seems to have recognized that David may be the potential successor
of his father as King of Israel. It says he made a covenant with
David, and stripped from himself the garments and weapons of the
crown prince and put them on David.
18:5 And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved
himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was
accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of
18:6 And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from
the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all
cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with
tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of music.
18:7 And the women answered one another as they played, and said,
Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
look to Davidís conduct and try our best to imitate that in every
way he brought honor to the Lord. It says he behaved himself wisely
Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there
is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave,
whither thou goest.
his faithfulness and willingness to do things right, Saul set David
over the men of war. All the people were knowledgeable about David,
and it said that he was accepted in the sight of all the people and
the servants of Saul. When they returned from battle, it says the
women came out singing and dancing to musical instruments. They
sang: ĒSaul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.Ē
Saul surely heard this and this probably made him even more
suspicious and fearful of David. Jealousy is a bad thing, and it can
hinder the unity in Godís church. We need to look out for the best
interests of others and not be so concerned with our own interests.
Fulfil ye my joy, that ye be likeminded, having the same love, being
of one accord, of one mind.
Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of
mind let each esteem other better than themselves.
Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the
things of others.
Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:
18:8 And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he
said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they
have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the
18:9 And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
18:10 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from
God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and
David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a
javelin in Saul's hand.
18:11 And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David
even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence
hearing the lyrics to the songs the women sang, it says Saul became
very wroth and this displeased him. He questions what can happen
more but for him to take the kingdom. From then on, Saul eyed David
and kept a close watch upon him. If we let jealousy take hold on us,
we too will not have the peace God intends for us to have. Jealousy
is a sin that we need to eliminate in our lives. We should be
thankful for what God has done for others, and know that even bad
times work to our good when we love the Lord and are called
according to His purpose. Jealousy is a sign that we have taken our
eyes off the Lord and stopped depending on Him. In verse 10, we see
the evil spirit returns upon Saul and begins to trouble him as it
had in the past. When we have negative thoughts and jealousy in our
hearts, we set ourselves up for Satan to bring us down. Saul calls
for David, and he comes to play the harp to soothe him as in the
past. This time, Saul has a javelin and he tries twice to kill David
by throwing the javelin at him. Each time David escaped out of
danger without being smitten. Note that in verse 12, Saul realizes
that it is God who protected David from the javelin.
Henry said this about Saulís hatred
In his fury
he aimed to kill David, v. 10, 11. Jealousy is the rage of a man; it
made Saul outrageous against David and impatient to get him out of
the way. 1. His fits of frenzy returned upon him. The very next day
after he conceived malice against David the evil spirit from God,
that had formerly haunted him, seized him again. Those that indulge
themselves in envy and uncharitableness give place to the devil, and
prepare for the re-entry of the unclean spirit, with seven others
is there is confusion. Saul pretended a religious ecstasy: He
prophesied in the midst of the house, that is, he had the gestures
and motions of a prophet, and humoured the thing well enough to
decoy David into a snare, and that he might be fearless of any
danger and off his guard; and perhaps designing, if he could but
kill him, to impute it to a divine impulse and to charge it upon the
spirit of prophecy with which he seemed to be animated: but really
it was a hellish fury that actuated him.
though advanced to a much higher post of honour, disdained not, for
his masterís service, to return to his harp: He played with his hand
as at other times. Let not the highest think any thing below them
whereby they may do good and be serviceable to those they are
3. He took this opportunity to aim
at the death of David. A sword in a madmanís hand is a dangerous
thing, especially such a madman as Saul was, that was mad with
malice. Yet he had a javelin or dart in his hand, which he
projected, endeavoring thereby to slay David, not in a sudden
passion, but deliberately: I will smite David to the wall with it,
with such a desperate force did he throw it. Justly does David
complain of his enemies that they hated him with a cruel hatred, Ps.
25:19. No life is thought too precious to be sacrificed to malice.
18:12 And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him,
and was departed from Saul.
18:13 Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain
over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.
18:14 And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD
was with him.
18:15 Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely,
he was afraid of him.
18:16 But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and
came in before them.
afraid of David because he saw that the Lord was with David and had
departed from Saul. It says Saul removed himself in order that he
might not kill David in a mad fit. He takes David out and makes him
the captain over a thousand, and then he came back in before the
people. David again shows wisdom in handling himself wisely in
everything that he did. This made Saul fear him even more. Saul
decides he needs to come up with a plan to put David to death. The
whole nation of Israel grew to love David as went out before them.
18:17 And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her
will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the
LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but
let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.
18:18 And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, or my
father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?
18:19 But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter
should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the
Meholathite to wife
17, we read where King Saul had promised his daughter to whoever
could go against Goliath and destroy him. Saul now presents his
daughter Merab to David and told him he could marry her if he would
continue to fight the Philistines and win the Lordís battles.
Probably, in the back of his mind, Saul figured if David kept going
out to battle against these Philistines, he would surely die. David
did not have any desire for Saulís daughter, and argues that he is
of a poor family and not fit to become the son in law to the king.
It appears that Saulís promise was all talk and he had no intentions
of giving her to David, in that he gave her to another man to be his
wife. His name was Adriel the Meholathite.
III. Michal, Saulís Daughter, is
Given to David.
18:20 And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul,
and the thing pleased him.
18:21 And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to
him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him.
Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law
in the one of the twain.
Saulís daughter, falls in love with David and it says that it
pleased Saul. It appears Saul thought he could manipulate this
daughter to help him destroy David. Perhaps he felt she would be a
snare to David and he would not continue to be the great warrior
towards the Philistines. What Saul failed to realize is that God was
with David in every step he took. One of my favorite verses in the
bible is Psalms 37 and verse 23.
The steps of a good man are ordered by the LORD: and he delighteth
in his way.
Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down: for the LORD
upholdeth him with his hand.
18:22 And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David
secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all
his servants love thee: now therefore be the king's son in law.
18:23 And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David.
And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king's son
in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?
18:24 And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner
servants are to commune with David secretly and tell David that the
king had delight in him. They tried to persuade David by telling him
that all the kings servants loved him. David was not impressed and
told them that he was but a poor man and could not afford to marry
the kingís daughter.
18:25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth
not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be
avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall
by the hand of the Philistines.
18:26 And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David
well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired.
18:27 Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of
the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins,
and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the
king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
18:28 And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that
Michal Saul's daughter loved him.
18:29 And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became
David's enemy continually.
18:30 Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to
pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely
than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.
go back and tell Saul what David has said about being a poor man. He
directs them to tell David that he did not require a huge dowry for
his daughter, but wanted a 100 foreskins of the Philistines. Saul
thought this would undoubtedly be more than David could do and he
would perish in the battle. But this was not the case, and David and
his men went forth and brought back 200 for the king. Saul had
little he could do at this point and gave Michal to be Davidís wife.
Saul became more afraid of David, and became Davidís enemy
continually. David set another great example and behaved himself
more wisely than all the servants of Saul.
In the King
James Study Bible, Jerry Falwell summarized the last half in the
chapter in a few sentences.
To further obligate David in hopes
of death in the line of duty, Saul promised to make David his
son-in-law with the exhortation:
only be thou valiant for me, and
Saulís older daughter, was married to another, David was given
instead. The purpose was the same;
that she may be a snare to him.
In order to convince David, and overcome his modesty, he was
counseled that the only
(a customary Oriental payment of money or valuable gift to the
father of the bride) would be a
hundred foreskins of the
David paid double the number, and was completely unharmed.
The more successful David became, the more threatened Saul felt;
every time Saul sent David into a dangerous situation it brought
David ever closer to the kingship.
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But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more
and more unto the perfect day.
Random Acts of Kindness. Each act spreads, and many will be blessed.