I Samuel Chapter
Memory verses for this week:
Gen 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,
it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth
Introduction: We continue
our study on Samuel this week. In last weekís lesson, we studied
about David and his men delivering the town of Keilah from the
attack of the Philistines. Saul heard about David being in this
walled city, and determined to come down and take David as prisoner.
God warned David that the people of Keilah would turn him over, and
he and his men fled to the wilderness of Ziph. The people that lived
there told Saul where he was hidden, and chapter 23 closed with the
army of Saul compassing all about David and his men. When it looked
like there was no hope of escape, Saul received a message that the
Philistines were attacking the Israelites, so he turned and left
pursuing David. God may not always deliver the Godly the way we
want, but he sure finds a way to do it.
Shows Mercy to Saul in Engedi
24:1 And it came to pass, when Saul was returned from following the
Philistines, that it was told him, saying, Behold, David is in the
wilderness of Engedi.
24:2 Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and
went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats.
As I just
mentioned, we closed Chapter 23 with Saul returning home due to the
Philistines invading his country. After Saul put down the
Philistines, he received word that David was in the wilderness of
Engedi. Immediately Saul takes up his attempt to find David and put
him to death. He brings 3,000 of his best men and seeks David in the
wild country of the barren shore of the Dead Sea where there are
many caves. It was in these caves that the wild goats found shelter
and the shepherds penned their sheep.
24:3 And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where was a cave; and
Saul went in to cover his feet: and David and his men remained in
the sides of the cave.
24:4 And the men of David said unto him, Behold the day of which the
LORD said unto thee, Behold, I will deliver thine enemy into thine
hand, that thou mayest do to him as it shall seem good unto thee.
Then David arose, and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe privily.
In one of
these very large caves, David stayed hidden with his men, somewhere
in the range of 400 men. Saul came into the very cave where David
and his men were hiding. He came in to rest and had no idea that he
had put himself fin the hands of the men he sought to slay. David
men judged that God had put the leader here to allow David to slay
King Saul. They perceived this was Godís way of fulfilling the
promise that David would take the kingdom from Saul. The men urge
David to rise up and the slay Saul and this would end his relentless
pursuit of them. From all we can see, it appears this would have
been very easy for David to have done. Rather than assassinating
Saul, David rather cuts off the bottom of the kingís robe. It
appears that Saul had removed the robe before David did this.
24:5 And it came to pass afterward, that David's heart smote him,
because he had cut off Saul's skirt.
24:6 And he said unto his men, The LORD forbid that I should do this
thing unto my master, the LORD'S anointed, to stretch forth mine
hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the LORD.
24:7 So David stayed his servants with these words, and suffered
them not to rise against Saul. But Saul rose up out of the cave, and
went on his way.
seemed like a small thing, verse 5 says that Davidís heart smote him
about this act. He was deeply convicted that he should not have done
this thing to the Lordís anointed. David saw Saul as the Lordís
anointed and it was for God to bring death to the man, not for David
to do. David was able to convince his men that he was right, and
they agreed that it would be wrong to rise up against Saul. This is
a man being led by the Holy Spirit of God. Can you imagine how hard
it would be to not put an end to the continual hounding that David
experienced day after day. But with Godís help, we can suffer
persecution and rejoice that we are counted worthy.
and the other apostles were brought before the Sanhedrin council,
they were not fearful for their lives, but spoke the truth.
And when they had brought them, they set them before the council:
and the high priest asked them,
Saying, Did not we straitly command you that ye should not teach in
this name? and, behold, ye have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine,
and intend to bring this man's blood upon us.
Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to
obey God rather than men.
The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a
Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a
Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.
And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the Holy
Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey him.
When they heard that, they were cut to the heart, and took counsel
to slay them.
Gamaliel told them to refrain from fighting against the apostles.
And now I say unto you, Refrain from these men, and let them alone:
for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought:
But if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found
even to fight against God.
And to him they agreed: and when they had called the apostles, and
beaten them, they commanded that they should not speak in the name
of Jesus, and let them go.
And they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that
they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name.
And daily in the temple, and in every house, they ceased not to
teach and preach Jesus Christ.
David Identifies Himself to Saul
24:8 David also arose afterward, and went out of the cave, and cried
after Saul, saying, My lord the king. And when Saul looked behind
him, David stooped with his face to the earth, and bowed himself.
24:9 And David said to Saul, Wherefore hearest thou men's words,
saying, Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?
and followed Saul out of the cave and cries out to him. When Saul
looked behind, David bowed with his face to the ground. David asks
Saul why he listened to men who told him that he sought to hurt King
Saul. David could easily have put Saul to death in the cave, but did
not harm him in anyway. It is always a dangerous thing to listen to
the rumors of men.
Henry said this about the men telling Saul that David was a danger
He lays the blame of his rage against
him upon his evil counselors:
Wherefore hearest thou menís words?
v. 9. It is a piece of respect due to crowned heads, if they do
amiss, to charge it upon those about them, who either advised them
to it or should have advised them against it. David had reason
enough to think that Saul persecuted him purely from his own envy
and malice, yet he courteously supposes that others put him on to do
it, and made him believe that David was his enemy and sought his
hurt. Satan, the great accuser of the brethren, has his agents in
all places, and particularly in the courts of those princes that
encourage them and give ear to them, who make it their business to
represent the people of God as enemies to Caesar and hurtful to
kings and provinces, that, being thus dressed up in bear-skins, they
may "be baited.íí
III. He solemnly protests his own innocence,
and that he is far from designing any hurt or mischief to Saul:
"There is neither evil nor transgression in my hand,
v. 11. I am not chargeable with any crime, nor conscious of any
guilt, and, had I a window in my breast, thou mightest through it
see the sincerity of my heart in this protestation:
I have not
sinned against thee (however
I have sinned against God),
yet thou huntest my soul,íí
that is, "my life.íí Perhaps it was about this time that David
penned the seventh psalm, concerning the affair of Cush the
Benjamite (that is, Saul, as some think), wherein he thus appeals to
God (v. 3-5):
If there be iniquity in my hands,
then let the enemy persecute my soul and take it,
putting in a parenthesis, with reference to the story of this
Yea, I have delivered him that
without cause is my enemy.
24:10 Behold, this day thine eyes have seen how that the LORD had
delivered thee to day into mine hand in the cave: and some bade me
kill thee: but mine eye spared thee; and I said, I will not put
forth mine hand against my lord; for he is the LORD'S anointed.
24:11 Moreover, my father, see, yea, see the skirt of thy robe in my
hand: for in that I cut off the skirt of thy robe, and killed thee
not, know thou and see that there is neither evil nor transgression
in mine hand, and I have not sinned against thee; yet thou huntest
my soul to take it.
explains to Saul that he could have killed him in the cave and tells
him to look at the skirt of his robe. Rather than killing him, he
cut off a portion of the robe. David explains how his men encouraged
him to take Saulís life, but he refused to put forth his hand
against the Lordís anointed. He informs Saul that he had not
hearkened to the voice of his men and he felt it would be wrong for
him to put Saul to death. He goes on to tell him that there was no
evil nor transgression in his hand, and that he had not sinned
against him. While David had done all this good, Saul still hunted
to take his soul from him.
24:12 The LORD judge between me and thee, and the LORD avenge me of
thee: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
24:13 As saith the proverb of the ancients, Wickedness proceedeth
from the wicked: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
24:14 After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost
thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea.
24:15 The LORD therefore be judge, and judge between me and thee,
and see, and plead my cause, and deliver me out of thine hand.
reminds Saul of how he has gone to a lot of trouble to try and kill
one that had done him no harm. He asks that God judge between the
two of them and avenge him. But as for David, he assures Saul that
his hand would be upon him. He quotes a proverb that Saul was most
likely familiar about how wickedness proceedeth from the wicked, but
mine hand shall not be upon thee. David likens Saulís efforts
against him as one seeking to catch a flea or seeking a dead dog
that could do no harm unto him. Again David asks God to be the one
to judge and to deliver him from the hand of Saul as he had done so
many times before this day.
Answers David and Departs
24:16 And it came to pass, when David had made an end of speaking
these words unto Saul, that Saul said, Is this thy voice, my son
David? And Saul lifted up his voice, and wept.
24:17 And he said to David, Thou art more righteous than I: for thou
hast rewarded me good, whereas I have rewarded thee evil.
24:18 And thou hast showed this day how that thou hast dealt well
with me: forasmuch as when the LORD had delivered me into thine
hand, thou killedst me not.
24:19 For if a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away?
wherefore the LORD reward thee good for that thou hast done unto me
heard Davidís words, he acknowledges that David was speaking the
truth and it caused him to weep. He commends David as a man more
righteous than himself in letting his enemy go when he could have
killed him. He goes on to tell David that God would surely reward
him for his goodness.
24:20 And now, behold, I know well that thou shalt surely be king,
and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in thine hand.
24:21 Swear now therefore unto me by the LORD, that thou wilt not
cut off my seed after me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out
of my father's house.
24:22 And David sware unto Saul. And Saul went home; but David and
his men gat them up unto the hold.
confesses that David would surely one day be king of Israel and
calls on David to swear that he would not cut off Saulís family nor
destroy his name out of his fatherís house. David being the great
man he was agrees that he will not bring harm or cut off his family.
Saul returns to his home and stops pursuing David at this time.
David remained in the stronghold of the cave. Later events prove
that David was wise not to trust the king. Psalms 57 and 142 were
probably written at this stage of Davidís life. These Psalms show
Davidís dependence on the Lord during these trying times.
To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David, when he fled
from Saul in the cave. Be merciful unto me, O God, be merciful unto
me: for my soul trusteth in thee: yea, in the shadow of thy wings
will I make my refuge, until these calamities be overpast.
I will cry unto God most high; unto God that performeth all things
He shall send from heaven, and save me from the reproach of him that
would swallow me up. Selah. God shall send forth his mercy and his
My soul is among lions: and I lie even among them that are set on
fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and
their tongue a sharp sword.
Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; let thy glory be above
all the earth.
Maschil of David; A Prayer when he was in the cave. I cried unto the
LORD with my voice; with my voice unto the LORD did I make my
I poured out my complaint before him; I showed before him my
When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then thou knewest my path.
In the way wherein I walked have they privily laid a snare for me.
I looked on my right hand, and beheld, but there was no man that
would know me: refuge failed me; no man cared for my soul.
I cried unto thee, O LORD: I said, Thou art my refuge and my portion
in the land of the living.
Attend unto my cry; for I am brought very low: deliver me from my
persecutors; for they are stronger than I.
Bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise thy name: the
righteous shall compass me about; for thou shalt deal bountifully
Bible Studies are prepared and distributed free of charge. The
lessons may not be sold without consent. If you have questions or
wish to discuss the lessons, or possibly need help in finding Jesus
Christ as your Personal Lord and Savior, contact David Parham at
But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more
and more unto the perfect day.
Random Acts of Kindness. Each act spreads, and many will be blessed.