I Samuel Chapter
Introduction: We continue
our study on Samuel this week. In last week’s lesson, we studied
about David and his men being in the midst of the Philistines as
they prepare to make war with Israel. King Achish was certain that
David would turn on his own people. When Saul saw the troops, he
tried to find some answers from the Lord but could not reach God in
any manner. He finally stoops to going to the city of En-Dor and
having a witch call up Samuel to get some answers. Through Samuel,
God makes it known that they not only would lose the battle to the
Philistines, but David and his sons would die in the battle.
is Providentially Saved from Fighting Israel
29:1 Now the Philistines gathered together all their armies to
Aphek: and the Israelites pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel.
29:2 And the lords of the Philistines passed on by hundreds, and by
thousands: but David and his men passed on in the rereward with
tells us that the Philistines gathered their armies to Aphek while
Israel moved their army down the mountain to Jezreel. Much of the
enemy invasion was in the valley of Jezreel because of the bountiful
crops that Israel raised in the fruitful valley. The Philistines
came in show of force passing by in the hundreds and thousands. In
the rear guard was David and his men with King Achish.
29:3 Then said the princes of the Philistines, What do these Hebrews
here? And Achish said unto the princes of the Philistines, Is not
this David, the servant of Saul the king of Israel, which hath been
with me these days, or these years, and I have found no fault in him
since he fell unto me unto this day?
Philistine princes look behind them and find David and his men, they
question the wisdom of having them there. They know that this is the
man who had been the servant to Saul the king, and all that they
need is to have a group ambushing them from the rear as they prepare
to battle Israel. King Achish immediately defends David and his men,
and says that David had been with him many days and he had found him
very loyal through all this time. Achish did not deny that David had
been the servant to Saul.
Displeasure of the Princes
29:4 And the princes of the Philistines were wroth with him; and the
princes of the Philistines said unto him, Make this fellow return,
that he may go again to his place which thou hast appointed him, and
let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an
adversary to us: for wherewith should he reconcile himself unto his
master? should it not be with the heads of these men?
honestly showed wisdom in becoming very wroth. They ask Achish to
send David back to Ziklag since it would be very easy for David to
reconcile himself to Saul by killing them. They flat out did not
want him in the battle at all. And it would have been very
interesting if the battle had begun to see if that was not what
David and his men would have done.
29:5 Is not this David, of whom they sang one to another in dances,
saying, Saul slew his thousands, and David his ten thousands?
29:6 Then Achish called David, and said unto him, Surely, as the
LORD liveth, thou hast been upright, and thy going out and thy
coming in with me in the host is good in my sight: for I have not
found evil in thee since the day of thy coming unto me unto this
day: nevertheless the lords favour thee not.
had not forgotten the song that the women sang about David having
killed his ten thousands and Saul just his thousands.
18:7 And the women answered one another as they played, and said,
Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
18:8 And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he
said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they
have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the
18:9 And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
that the women sang caused Saul to be very jealous of David and may
have started the bitter hatred that he developed in time to destroy
David. Saul from this day forward was jealous and very displeased
with David. One thing we can be certain about. People notice what
you do and who you are, even a child is known by his works and
The just man walketh in his integrity: his children are blessed
A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment scattereth away all
evil with his eyes.
Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin?
20:10 Divers weights, and divers measures, both of them are alike
abomination to the LORD.
20:11 Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work be pure,
and whether it be right.
not hasty to forget what David had done in the past and felt sure he
was capable of doing now as he ever had been. Achish calls David one
of his most loyal and faithful servants in all his deeds there in
Philistia. While King Achish expressed his confidence in David, the
princes of the Philistines wanted no part of David in the battle. So
Achish tells David this, and tells him to take his men and depart
for home. This was the only way that David could please the
Philistines. And this was true for King Achish also.
Henry said in his commentary that sometimes even Kings can not do as
If the reasons Achish had to trust
David were stronger than the reasons which the princes offered why
they should distrust him (as I do not see that, in policy, they
were, for the princes were certainly in the right), yet Achish was
but one of five, though the chief, and the only one that had the
title of king; accordingly, in a council of war held on this
occasion, he was over-voted, and obliged to dismiss David, though he
was extremely fond of him. Kings cannot always do as they would, nor
have such as they would about them.
The discharge Achish gives him
is very honourable, and not a final discharge, but only from the
present service. 1. He signifies the great pleasure and
satisfaction he had taken in him and in his conversation: Thou
art good in my sight as an angel of God, v. 9. Wise and good men
will gain respect, wherever they go, from all that know how to
make a right estimate of persons and things, though of different
professions in religion. What Achish says of David, God, by the
prophet, says of the house of David (Zec. 12:8), that it shall
be as the angel of the Lord. But the former is a
court-compliment; the latter is a divine promise. 2. He gives
him a testimonial of his good behaviour, v. 6. It is very full
and in obliging terms: "Thou hast been upright, and thy whole
conduct has been good in my sight, and I have not found evil in
thee.’’ Saul would not have given him such a testimonial, though
he had done far more service to him than Achish. God’s people
should behave themselves always so inoffensively as if possible
to get the good word of all they have dealings with; and it is a
debt we owe to those who have acquitted themselves well to give
them the praise of it. 3. He lays all the blame of his
dismission upon the princes, who would by no means suffer him to
continue in the camp. "The king loves thee entirely, and would
venture his life in thy hand; but the lords favour thee not, and
we must not disoblige them, nor can we oppose them; therefore
return and go in peace.’’
III. David Protests to Achish
29:7 Wherefore now return, and go in peace, that thou displease not
the lords of the Philistines.
29:8 And David said unto Achish, But what have I done? and what hast
thou found in thy servant so long as I have been with thee unto this
day, that I may not go fight against the enemies of my lord the
protests to Achish that he is being treated unfairly. Achish tells
him in verse 9 that he has total confidence in David and thinks of
him being as good as an angel. However it was not he that did not
want him in the battle, but the princes of the Philistines. The did
not want him in the battle, and I think they showed wisdom in this.
29:9 And Achish answered and said to David, I know that thou art
good in my sight, as an angel of God: notwithstanding the princes of
the Philistines have said, He shall not go up with us to the battle.
29:10 Wherefore now rise up early in the morning with thy master's
servants that are come with thee: and as soon as ye be up early in
the morning, and have light, depart.
instructs David to arise early the next morning and to return to the
land of the Philistines. David does not continue to argue, but does
as King Achish requests.
29:11 So David and his men rose up early to depart in the morning,
to return into the land of the Philistines. And the Philistines went
up to Jezreel.
his men return to Ziklag as the Philistines move on to encounter
Israel in the valley of Jezreel. We are not told what David’s true
feelings were in this manner. He may have been relieved to not have
to go down and aid Israel in the defeat of the Philistines. Perhaps
he was so bitter that he truly intended to take on Saul’s army, but
that would not line up with his earlier words concerning Saul being
the anointed of the Lord and how David would not raise his hand
against him. He might have been compelled to fight on the side of
the Philistines which would have been the outcome of his failure to
maintain his faith in the Lord rather than going down and living
with the arch enemies of Israel. But by God’s providence, he is
spared the battle. David could not claim any credit for himself in
this matter as the Lord delivered him from his predicament.
McGee said this area of Jezreel will be another place of battle one
Jezreel is in the north. If you have
a good map, you ought to take a look at the geography at this point.
It will make clearer a great deal of what is happening. Jezreel is
near the Valley of Esdraelon. In fact, I would say it is part of it.
It is here that the Scriptures tell us the last great War of
Armageddon will be fought. It is being used as a wonderful fertile
the Philistines go on up to Jezreel, David and his men start back
home to Ziklag. It will not be a joyful homecoming, as we shall see.
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But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more
and more unto the perfect day.
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