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Luke Chapter 22:1-30

Memory verses for this week:  James 5:20  Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins. 

Introduction: We continue our study of the book of Luke this week as we continue in chapter 22.   Last week, we began our study with the study about how great the widow’s gift of two mites was to the Lord.  Jesus delivered the Olivet discourse and told about how he would return in great power and glory.   Jesus also foretold the destruction of Jerusalem.


I.  Judas Betrays Jesus to the Chief Priests 

Luke 22:1  Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.

Luke 22:2  And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. 

The Passover was a feast of the Jews that was observed by them every year in the month of April.  While Jesus was preparing to keep the feast, the chief priests and scribes were conferring together how they might kill Him, not realizing that He was the ante typical Passover Lamb.  The religious leaders were really seeking to destroy the Lord.  It says they would have done it had it not been for fear of the common people. 

Luke 22:3  Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.

Luke 22:4  And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.

Luke 22:5  And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.

Luke 22:6  And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude. 

Satan moves in and takes possession of Judas to betray the Lord.   Unfortunately for Judas, he was doing just what God had foreseen would be done.  However, just like Judas, there are many today who associate with Christians and take part in religious services, but they have never known Christ themselves.  I’m sure Judas thought that no one had heard the agreement he made with the chief priests and captains.  But God knew all about it as He later revealed.  The chief priests and captains were very glad that Judas had come to them, and they offered him money.   The thirty pieces of silver was worth about $18 in our money today.   Judas sought opportunity to betray Christ unto them in the absence of the multitude.


II.  Preparation of the Passover 

Luke 22:7  Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.

Luke 22:8  And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. 

The Passover lamb was to be killed on the 14th day of April.  Jesus sent Peter and John to prepare a place to eat the passover feast.  These two men are mentioned many times in the scriptures.  They were part of what is known as the ‘inner circle’ of friends. 

Exo 12:1  And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

Exo 12:2  This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exo 12:3  Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:

Exo 12:4  And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.

Exo 12:5  Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:

Exo 12:6  And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. 

Luke 22:9  And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?

Luke 22:10  And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.

Luke 22:11  And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?

Luke 22:12  And he shall show you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.

Luke 22:13  And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover. 


The men ask Jesus “Where wilt Thou that we prepare?”  Jesus had no home in or about Jerusalem, and this was a valid question.  In those days, it was customary for the Jews to have a special room set apart as a guest chamber where they might entertain travelers, particularly at the time of the Passover.  Jesus tell them that there would be a man bearing a pitcher of water that would show them the room where they were to prepare the passover. 

Note some of the things about these directions.

1.  There was not a definite name given to the man.

2.  There was no definite description to help them identify.

3.  How were they to know they had met the right man?

4.  It was an uncommon thing to see a man to be found in the public streets with a pitcher of water.    This errand was typically done by the women who generally carried the water in earthen jars upon their heads.

5.  Jesus was making a clear identification of the man by him bearing the pitcher of water.

6.  Note that the man was evidently a believer in Christ.  (verse 11)

7.  It may be that this was the house where John Mark lived.  We know this home had a large upper room where the disciples gathered after the resurrection of the Lord.  This was where the early church held its first prayer meetings.

8.  The disciples went, and found the man just like the Lord said they would.  You will always find this to be true.   Whatever Jesus said, it always came to pass. 

Matthew Henry said this about the room they sought to partake of the Passover feast. 

The preparation that was made for Christ’s eating the passover with his disciples, upon the very day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed according to the law, v. 7. Christ was made under the law, and observed the ordinances of it, particularly that of the passover, to teach us in like manner to observe his gospel institutions, particularly that of the Lord’s supper, and not to neglect them. It is probable that he went to the temple to preach in the morning, when he sent Peter and John another way into the city to prepare the passover. Those who have attendants about them, to do their secular business for them in a great measure, must not think that this allows them to be idle; it engages them to employ themselves more in spiritual business, or service to the public. He directed those whom he employed whither they should go (v. 9, 10): they must follow a man bearing a pitcher of water, and he must be their guide to the house. Christ could have described the house to them; probably it was a house they knew, and he might have said no more than, Go to such a one’s house, or to a house in such a street, with such a sign, etc. But he directed them thus, to teach them to depend upon the conduct of Providence, and to follow that, step by step. They went, not knowing whither they went, nor whom they followed.   [i]


III.  The Last Passover 

Luke 22:14  And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.

Luke 22:15  And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:

Luke 22:16  For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

Luke 22:17  And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:

Luke 22:18  For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. 

Jesus had often participated in the Passover feasts in the years that had gone by.  It was a picture of His own approaching death, and His love led Him to long to have His disciples with Him at this table.  Notice that only the twelve apostles were present with the Lord.  Jesus was the only one in Israel who knew that this Passover prefigured His own death on Calvary and the salvation which He was to procure by the shedding of His blood.   The ‘Cup’ mentioned in verse 17 had nothing to do with the Lord’s Supper.


IV.  The Lord’s Supper Instituted 

Luke 22:19  And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.

Luke 22:20  Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. 

The bread that Jesus brake spoke of His broken body.   The cup spoke of His blood that was shed for the remission of sins.  He told them that they took this bread and cup to remember the Lord’s death. 

J. Vernon McGee said this about these verses. 

The Lord took two of the most frail elements in the world as symbols of His body and blood. Bread and wine—both will spoil in a few days. When He raised a monument, it was not made of brass or marble, but of two frail elements that perish. He declared that the bread spoke of His body and the wine spoke of His blood. The bread speaks of His body broken—not a bone broken but a broken body because He was made sin for us (see 2 Cor. 5:21). I do not believe He even looked human when He was taken down from that cross. Isaiah had said of Him, “… his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men” (Isa. 52:14); and “… there is no beauty that we should desire him” (Isa. 53:2).

For centuries the Passover feast had looked forward to the Lord’s coming and His death. Now He is in the shadow of the cross, and this is the last Passover. The Passover feast has now been fulfilled. We gather about the Lord’s Table and search our hearts. What we do at this Table is in remembrance of Him. We look back to what He did for us on the cross, and we look forward to His coming again. “For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come” (1 Cor. 11:26).   [ii]


V.  Jesus Announces His Betrayal 

Luke 22:21  But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.

Luke 22:22  And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!

Luke 22:23  And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. 

Jesus declares that the one who would betray Him was sitting at the table.   While this was a horrible time in Christ’s life, it was not a surprise.   In the council halls of eternity, it had been determined that Jesus would come and die for the sins of the world.   He willingly gave up his throne in glory and came down in the form of man to pay the price that we could not pay for our sins.   Jesus said that it would have been better that the man who betrayed him had never been born. 

Mark 14:21  The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born. 

The disciples started inquiring among themselves who it was that would betray Christ.   It is apparent from this that Judas had been able to conceal his sins from the rest of the disciples.   We may can fool man, but God knows all about our real heart.


VI.  Strife Concerning Who Would be the Greatest 

Luke 22:24  And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.

Luke 22:25  And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.

Luke 22:26  But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.

Luke 22:27  For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth. 

It was immediately after the Lord’s Supper that the disciples began to quarrel among themselves as to who would have the chief place in the coming kingdom.

It is sad that our human drive makes us want to have positions of power and prestige.  Jesus rebukes them by indicating that their ambitious spirit was common among the nations and sinful men, it should not be found among His own.  Greatness is shown by lowly service.  The kingdom of God is the only kingdom ever known to man where the greatest are those who take the humblest place.


VII.  The Apostle’s Place in the Future Kingdom 

Luke 22:28  Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.

Luke 22:29  And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;

Luke 22:30  That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 

When Jesus come again to reign on this earth for a thousand years, he said the 12 apostles would sit on 12 thrones judging the 12 tribes of Israel.  Who will that 12th apostle be?   We know that it won’t be Judas as he was lost from the beginning and certainly will not be coming to reign with Christ to judge the nation of Israel.   Judas apparently is in Hell awaiting the Great White Throne Judgment which comes at the end of the 1,000 year millennial reign of Christ. 

Who will the 12th disciple be?   Perhaps it will be Matthias who was voted in to take Judas place by the church.   My personal thinking is that it will be the apostle Paul.   While he never walked with the Lord nor was trained on earth by him, I believe the efforts he put forth in his life after salvation warrant him being the 12th man.   He was known as the apostle unto the Gentiles. 

Acts 1:23  And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias.

Acts 1:24  And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, show whether of these two thou hast chosen,

Acts 1:25  That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.

Acts 1:26  And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.  

Rom 11:13  For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office:

Rom 11:14  If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them. 

1 Tim 2:7  Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.


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Prov 4:18  But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day.


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[i]Henry, Matthew, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Bible, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers) 1997.

[ii]J. Vernon McGee, Thru the Bible commentary [computer file], electronic ed., Logos Library System, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson) 1997, c1981 by J. Vernon McGee.